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Yuki Wappo languages

Yuki-Wappo languages ​​(Yukian languages) – an extinct family of languages ​​that occupied a small area in western California. of only 2 languages.

Compound

The family consists of 2 languages:

one. Yuki 2. Wappo

The Yuki-wappo family is supposedly isolated and unrelated to other languages. The Yuki language consists of 3 dialects: Yuki proper, Coastal Yuki, and Huchnom. The Wappo language consisted of 5 dialects: 4 were common in Napa Valley (Napa Valley), and another dialect in the Clear Lake enclave.

Wappo and yuki are very different grammatically and lexically (Goddard 1996: 83), which led many to question their relationship. In addition, the Wappo and Yuki peoples are very different culturally and even externally (Goddard 1996: 83). The Yuki Wappo languages ​​appear to be one of the strata in California, even earlier than the hypothetical Hokan languages ​​(Goddard 1996: 84). The Yuki language is associated with the Mendocino archaeological site near Clear Lake (3000 BC), while Wappo in the Napa Valley is associated with the Augustine Pattern.

Apparently, the family broke up around 2000-1000 BC. e. as a result of the migration of the Pomoan peoples. Later, the Wappos migrated to the Alexander Valley in the 19th century. as a result of the war with the southern aid.

Genetic links

The relationship between the Yuki and Wappo languages ​ by Jesse Sawyer, who believes that the similarities could be explained by borrowings and common areal features of languages. On the other hand, William Elmendorf has provided compelling evidence for kinship. Marianne Mitun (1999) believes that the question of kinship is still open.

In turn, the yuki-wappo family was included in a number of hypothetical macrofamilies:

  • languages
  • Khokan languages
  • Sioux languages
  • M. Swadesh’s „Khokog languages” (included the Khokan, Muskog and a number of other languages ​​of the Gulf.

To date, none of these hypotheses has become generally accepted.